Beryllium Bronze [BEST]
One of the highest strength copper based alloys available on the market today is beryllium copper, also known as spring copper or beryllium bronze. The commercial grades of beryllium copper contain 0.4 to 2.0 percent beryllium. The small ratio of beryllium to copper creates a family of high copper alloys with strength as high as alloy steel. The first of the two families, C17200 and C17300, includes high strength with moderate conductivity, while the second family, C17500 and C17510, offers high conductivity with moderate strength. The principle characteristics of these alloys are their excellent response to precipitation-hardening treatments, excellent thermal conductivity, and resistance to stress relaxation.
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Beryllium bronze, also known as beryllium copper (BeCu) is a metallic copper alloy with amounts of beryllium between 0.5% and 3%. Beryllium bronze is particularly notable due to its presence as part of several SCPs and anomalies. SCP-073, whose spine, limbs, and shoulders were made of beryllium bronze, was inquired as to the origins of this alloy. He indicated that it originated from the Middle East, but did not pinpoint any exact point of origin. Notably, it's highly compatible with thaumaturgical applications, such as sealing wards.
Beryllium copper attains the greatest strength (up to 1,400 MPa (200,000 psi)) of any copper-based alloy. It has good thermal conductivity (62 Btu/ft-deg.F-H), which is 3-5 times higher than tool steel. It has a solid melting point of 1590 F (866 C) and a liquid melting point of 1800 F (982 C). It has a high capacity for being hot-formed. C17200 beryllium copper alloy has strength and hardness similar to that of steel; Rockwell hardness properties in its peaked age condition[further explanation needed] are in the range of 200 ksi and RC45.
Inhalation of dust, mist, or fumes containing beryllium can cause chronic beryllium disease, which restricts the exchange of oxygen between the lungs and the bloodstream. The International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) lists beryllium as a Group 1 human carcinogen. The National Toxicology Program (NTP) also lists beryllium as a carcinogen. Copper beryllium alloy containing less than 2.5% beryllium (in copper) is not designated as a carcinogen.
Beryllium copper is non-sparking yet physically tough and nonmagnetic, fulfilling the requirements of ATEX directive for Zones 0, 1, and 2. Beryllium copper screwdrivers, pliers, wrenches, cold chisels, knives, and hammers are available for environments with explosive hazards, such as oil rigs, coal mines, and grain elevators. An alternative metal sometimes used for non-sparking tools is aluminium bronze. Compared to steel tools, beryllium copper tools are more expensive and not as strong, but the properties of beryllium copper in hazardous environments may outweigh the disadvantages. Some of BeCu's varied uses include:
Tempered beryllium copper is C17200 and C17300, which have been age-hardened and cold-drawn. No further heat treatment is necessary beyond possible light stress relief. It is sufficiently ductile to wind on its diameter and can be formed into springs and most shapes. The tempered wire is most useful where the properties of beryllium copper are desired, but the age-hardening of finished parts is not practical.
C17510 and C17500 beryllium copper alloys are age-hardenable and provide good electrical conductivity, physical properties, and wear-resistance. They are used in springs and wire where electrical conduction or retention of properties at elevated temperatures is important.
High-strength beryllium copper alloys contain as much as 2.7% beryllium (cast), or 1.6-2% beryllium with about 0.3% cobalt (wrought). The strength is achieved by age hardening. The thermal conductivity of these alloys lies between that of steel and aluminum. The cast alloys are frequently formed with injection molds. The wrought alloys are designated by UNS as C17200 to C17400, the cast alloys are C82000 to C82800. The hardening process requires rapid cooling of the annealed metal, resulting in a solid-state solution of beryllium in copper, which is then kept at 200-460 C for at least an hour, producing a precipitation of metastable beryllide crystals in the copper matrix. Over-aging beyond the equilibrium phase depletes the beryllide crystals and reduces their strength. The beryllides in cast alloys are similar to those in wrought alloys.
High conductivity beryllium copper alloys contain as much as 0.7% beryllium with some nickel and cobalt. The thermal conductivity of these alloys is greater than that of aluminum and slightly less than that of pure copper; they are often used as electrical contacts.
Abstract: Featured ApplicationFabrication of high-precision patterned leaf springs or membranes for measuring equipment. AbstractPatterned leaf springs made of a beryllium bronze sheet are the key components of certain micro/nano contact probes. The accuracy of the probe is determined based on the precision of the formed pattern. However, a traditional manufacturing method using wire-electrode discharge machining (wire-EDM) is subject to poor tolerance at the sharp edges and corners. In addition, high energy consumption and costs are incurred for complex patterns. This paper presents a new chemical etching method for the manufacturing of a patterned leaf spring with high precision. Both the principle and process are introduced. Taguchi experiments were designed and conducted and the optimal process parameters were obtained based on the mean value and a variance analysis. Four V-shaped and some other complex patterned leaf springs were successfully fabricated. Comparison experiments concerning the characteristic parameters of the leaf spring were also conducted. The experimental results reveal that the patterned leaf springs manufactured through this method are much better than those achieved using wire-EDM. This manufacturing method can be used to fabricate different high-precision patterned leaf springs or membranes for coordinate measuring machines (CMM) probes and other measuring equipment.Keywords: probe; leaf spring; chemical etching; beryllium bronze
This is a high-strength beryllium copper alloy, which usually comes for applications with special requirements in strength, corrosion resistance and thermal and electrical conductivity. This is important for safety uses in the oil and gas Exploration as well as the oil and gas transportation and processing (non-incendiary and non-magnetic tools and equipment as a replacement for steel tools), but also in the automotive industry and in aviation, but as well as for molds (plastic, glass, metals), welding and other critical applications with the most combined and high mechanical, thermal and chemical requirements. The properties of the Be-bronze could be changed by hardening even further. Consumers also use it for micro-castings or individual forms
This beryllium alloys are available as billets for forging and drawing (as cast but also turned or polished), small ingots with 60-100 g or 2 kg ingots, as well as small pieces of cut or sheared plates with ca. about 1-2.5 cm length. Packaging is done on pallets and / or in strong crates or barrels.
The hardness of beryllium copper at HRC36-42 can reach the hardness, strength, high thermal conductivity required for plastic mold manufacturing, simple and convenient machining, long mold life, and save development and production cycles.
1) The thermal conductivity of beryllium copper material is conducive to controlling the temperature of the plastic processing mold, and it is also easier to control the molding cycle, while ensuring the uniformity of the mold wall temperature.
When the strength and hardness of beryllium copper meet the requirements, the insensitivity of beryllium copper to mold temperature stress can greatly increase the life of the mold. The yield strength of beryllium copper should also be considered before determining the use of beryllium copper mold materials. The modulus of elasticity, thermal conductivity and temperature coefficient of expansion. 041b061a72